The remainder of the serf's time he spent tending his own fields, crops and animals in order to provide for his family. The landlord could not dispossess his serfs without legal cause and was supposed to protect them from the depredations of robbers or other lords, and he was expected to support them by charity in times of famine. Serfs served on occasion as soldiers in the event of conflict and could earn freedom or even ennoblement for valour in combat. Villeins had more rights and higher status than the lowest serf, but existed under a number of legal restrictions that differentiated them from freemen. Large Roman landowners increasingly relied on Roman freemen, acting as tenant farmers, instead of slaves to provide labour. This unified system preserved for the lord long-acquired knowledge of practices suited to the land. These oaths bound the lord and his new serf in a feudal contract and defined the terms of their agreement. The amount of labour required varied.
This arrangement provided most of the agricultural labour throughout the Middle Ages. The status of the helots in the ancient Greek city-state of Sparta resembled that of the medieval serfs. On the other hand, the serf of a benign lord could look forward to being well fed during his service; it was a lord without foresight who did not provide a substantial meal for his serfs during the harvest and planting times. One rationale held that a serf "worked for all" while a knight or baron "fought for all" and a churchman "prayed for all"; thus everyone had a place. In addition to service, a serf was required to pay certain taxes and fees. Villeins generally rented small homes, with or without land. Taxes were based on the assessed value of his lands and holdings. A lord of the manor could not sell his serfs as a Roman might sell his slaves. State serfs were emancipated in Slavery persisted right through the Middle Ages,  but it was rare. Most often, there were two types of peasants: In Poland, for example, it was commonly a few days per year per household in the 13th century. Serfdom only existed in central and southern areas of the Russian Empire. The surplus he would sell at market. A serf could grow what crop he saw fit on his lands, although a serf's taxes often had to be paid in wheat. August 5,  land reforms in Moldavia: Villeins were generally able to hold their own property, unlike slaves. The remainder of the serf's time he spent tending his own fields, crops and animals in order to provide for his family. In the Middle Ages, land within a lord's manor provided sustenance and survival, and being a villein guaranteed access to land, and crops secure from theft by marauding robbers. These distinctions were often less clear than suggested by their different names. Often there were arbitrary tests to judge the worthiness of their tax payments. Whipping was a common punishment for Russian serfs. Villein A villein or villain represented the most common type of serf in the Middle Ages. It was never established in the North, in the Urals, and in Siberia. It was also a matter of discussion whether serfs could be required by law in times of war or conflict to fight for their lord's land and property. Generally hunting and trapping of wild game by the serfs on the lord's property was prohibited.
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