As discussed above, these specific apparently stalking behaviors may have multiple motivations. Scotland In Scotland , behaviour commonly described as stalking was already prosecuted as the Common Law offence of breach of the peace not to be confused with the minor English offence of the same description before the introduction of the statutory offence against s. The other participant, often but not always a man, wishes to escalate the relationship. Stalking is a controversial crime because a conviction does not require any physical harm. There was no significant difference between the incidence of stalking in rural and urban areas. She emphasizes that in the United Kingdom, Australia, and the United States, strangers are considered more dangerous when it comes to stalking than a former partner. Most of these victims are individuals who are portrayed heavily on media outlets but can also include individuals such as politicians and athletes.
This shall be punished with imprisonment from one to three months or a fine if the case is not a more serious offense. Both the vengeance stalker and terrorist stalker the latter sometimes called the political stalker do not, in contrast with some of the aforementioned types of stalkers, seek a personal relationship with their victims but rather force them to emit a certain response. Resentful stalkers make a vendetta because of a sense of grievance against the victims — motivated mainly by the desire to frighten and distress the victim. Less common are sexual assaults. In Davis , Lucks identified a separate category of stalkers who instead of a terrestrial means, prefer to perpetrate crimes against their targeted victims through electronic and online means. Section has withstood Charter challenges. One participant, often a woman, likely wishes to end the relationship entirely, but may find herself unable to easily do so. Their victims are most often already in a dating relationship with someone else. The act of stalking under this section is exemplified by contacting, or attempting to contact, a person by any means, publishing any statement or other material relating or purporting to relate to a person, monitoring the use by a person of the internet, email or any other form of electronic communication, loitering in any place whether public or private , interfering with any property in the possession of a person or watching or spying on a person. The report did not break down these cases into numbers of victims who claimed to have been stalked by several people individually, and by people acting in concert. Definitions The difficulties associated with defining this term exactly or defining it at all are well documented. It is rarely used for stalking as portrayed by the media since only a small minority of cases in the survey involved such behaviour. Cyberstalking and Cyberstalking legislation Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cyberstalking. Congressman Ed Royce introduced the law in Moreover, the separated acts that make up the intrusion cannot by themselves cause the mental abuse, but do taken together cumulative effect. Provision is made under the Protection from Harassment Act against stalking to deal with the civil offence i. In fact, United Kingdom law states the incident only has to happen twice when the harasser should be aware their behavior is unacceptable e. They may engage in vandalism and property damage or make physical attacks that are meant to frighten. They become illegal when they breach the legal definition of harassment e. Scholars note that the majority of men and women admit engaging in various stalking-like behaviors following a breakup, but stop such behaviors over time, suggesting that "engagement in low levels of unwanted pursuit behaviors for a relatively short amount of time, particularly in the context of a relationship break-up, may be normative for heterosexual dating relationships occurring within U. It is considered the "gold standard" as a reference to stalking crimes, victim protection, safety planning, security and threat assessment published by CRC Press, Inc. In addition to Mullen et al. Department of Justice special report  a significant number of people reporting stalking incidents claim that they had been stalked by more than one person, with The stalkers of these victims tend to visit them in their workplace which means that they are either an employer, employee, or a customer. However, most stalkers are nonpsychotic and may exhibit disorders or neuroses such as major depression , adjustment disorder , or substance dependence , as well as a variety of personality disorders such as antisocial , borderline , or narcissistic.
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