GPR is expressed in adipocytes and macrophages and is involved in the development of chronic inflammation and insulin resistance An inactive lifestyle and the consumption of high-calorie food and a high-fat diet promote obesity. Briefly, the small intestine was divided in half, and the oral and rectal portions were defined as the upper and lower small intestine, respectively. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of fat-induced GIP secretion may lead to a therapeutic strategy for obesity. Blood samples were collected 60 minutes after administration, and total GIP levels were measured. Also, the mechanism of fat-induced GIP secretion through GPR is not known, and this is particularly interesting, given that GPR is expressed in multiple enteroendocrine cell types.
An inactive lifestyle and the consumption of high-calorie food and a high-fat diet promote obesity. The amount of bile at 60 minutes after oral corn-oil administration was measured directly using a gauge syringe Terumo, Tokyo, Japan immediately after cervical dislocation. Blood samples were collected 60 minutes after administration, and total GIP levels were measured. GIP and GLP-1 also have extrapancreatic effects; for instance, pharmacological activation of the GLP-1 receptor reduces food intake through the central nervous system, whereas GIP directly increases glucose and triglyceride uptake into adipocytes 7, 8. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of fat-induced GIP secretion may lead to a therapeutic strategy for obesity. GPR is expressed in adipocytes and macrophages and is involved in the development of chronic inflammation and insulin resistance Statistical analyses were performed using one-way analysis of variance with Tukey's post hoc test. Obesity is one of the most challenging public health problems confronting us and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease 1. The volume was calculated using the following equation: Also, the mechanism of fat-induced GIP secretion through GPR is not known, and this is particularly interesting, given that GPR is expressed in multiple enteroendocrine cell types. WT mice are represented by white circles and bars. Primer sequences were as follows: Gut hormones are secreted from enteroendocrine cells in a nutrient-modulated manner and play an important role in food intake, nutrient absorption, energy accumulation, and glucose homeostasis. Blood glucose levels were determined by the glucose oxidase method Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho, Nagoya, Japan. PCR analyses were carried out using specific oligonucleotide primers. Interestingly, GPR and GPR40 were recently found to be expressed in enteroendocrine cells and involved in mediating incretin secretion 16, Neurotensin NTS secreted from N cells promotes intestinal fat absorption 5. A reduction in obesity can contribute to the prevention and improvement of type 2 diabetes mellitus and arteriosclerosis. Isolation of K cells from mouse intestinal epithelium The protocol to isolate K cells from murine intestinal epithelium was described previously Intestinal transit estimated using oil red O 22 was not significantly different among the three groups data not shown. Secretin released from S cells increases bicarbonate secretion for neutralization of gastric acid in duodenum 3. We previously reported that a reduction in GIP secretion alleviates high-fat-diet—induced obesity and insulin resistance Briefly, the small intestine was divided in half, and the oral and rectal portions were defined as the upper and lower small intestine, respectively. For example, cholecystokinin CCK secreted from I cells induces bile and pancreatic lipase secretion 2. Gallbladder contraction and bile volume after oral corn oil administration The gallbladder volume was evaluated by ultrasonography 0 and 60 minutes after oral corn oil administration. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction Complementary DNA was prepared by reverse transcription Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA with an oligo-deoxythymidine primer Invitrogen. However, the role of these receptors in fat-induced GIP secretion in vivo and the associated mechanisms are unclear.
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